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唐三彩舍利塔

唐三彩(Tang Tri-Color Glazed Ceramics),中国古代陶瓷烧制工艺的珍品,全名唐代三彩釉陶器,是盛行于唐代的一种低温釉陶器,釉彩有黄、绿、白、褐、蓝、黑等色彩,而以黄、绿、白三色为主,所以人们习惯称之为“唐三彩”。因唐三彩最早、最多出土于洛阳,亦有“洛阳唐三彩”之称。1905年陇海铁路洛阳段修筑期间,在古都洛阳北邙山发现一批唐代墓葬,后来人们习惯地把这类陶器称为“唐三彩”,并且沿用至今,享誉中外。

唐三彩,是从唐墓挖掘出来的陶器之泛称,后来学者视为一种陶瓷分类上的术语。唐三彩并非专指那三种色彩而言。在唐墓中所挖掘出来的各类陶俑、陶像,以及其他陶器上,有的只有单彩,或者二彩,有甚多的器物,却具有较复杂的多彩颜色。一般而言,除了胎体的白地之外,铅黄、绿、青三彩最为普遍,在三彩的调配技法上,也最富艺术的韵味。唐三彩的器皿较少,而小马、小家畜、小家禽数量较多,均具丰美的艺术意匠,尤以各种人物的陶俑,以及超自然形象的魌头,最具艺术价值。三彩器正表现出唐代各种实际生活所应用的器物,而在这些器物中,却把当时社会生活的形态很完备的呈现出来,由此获知殉葬的明器与其他器物的形制与数量,均按照墓葬者生前官阶,以及门第的大小而定。例如唐礼明器之制,三品以上九十事,五品以上六十事,九品以上四十事。挺马偶人高一尺。其他音乐队、童仆之属、威仪服玩,亦各视其生前之品秩而定之。初唐之末期,始兴厚葬之风,其后自盛唐至中、晚唐,厚葬之风益甚,舁明器而行街衢,陈墓所,奏歌舞音乐,张帷幕,设盘牀,以造花、人形、饮食施路人,殆如祭祀。因为唐代讲究以三彩明器作为陪葬品,所以,从清末建筑河南汴洛铁路以来,在洛阳北郊邙山等地之唐墓中,先后发掘为数颇多之三彩器与俑像。唐三彩不论其形制与色彩之施化,均具极高之艺术意匠,乃引起日本、欧美各国人士之注目,而以高价购藏,从此唐三彩遂被列入世界艺术之一部分。以上引自君友会王爱君美术文献《唐三彩》。唐三彩制作最盛之时为开元、天宝至大历年间(公元713~766年)。其艺术成就是震古铄今,闻名中外的。唐三彩是由一个健全强明的朝代所启毓而成,同时,它也具体而活跃的反映出此一健全强明的时代精神。

Tang Tri-Color Ceramics, a treasure of ancient Chinese Ceramics firing craft, the full name of Tang Tri-Color Ceramics, is a kind of low temperature Glazed pottery popular in the Tang Dynasty. The glaze Color has yellow, green, white, brown, blue, black and other colors, and given top place to yellow, green, white Color, so people used to call it "Tang Tri-Color Ceramics".Tri-glazed glazed pottery of the Tang Dynasty was first and most unearthed in Luoyang, so it is also known as "Luoyang Tri-glazed glazed pottery of the Tang Dynasty".

In 1905, during the construction of the Luoyang section of the Longhai Railway, a number of Tang Dynasty tombs were found in the north of the ancient capital Luoyang. Later, people used to call this kind of pottery "Tang Tri-colored Colour", and it is still in use today, renowned at home and abroad

Tri-colored glazed pottery of the Tang Dynasty is a generic term for pottery excavated from Tang tombs and later regarded by scholars as a term for the classification of ceramics.Tri-colored glazed pottery of the Tang Dynasty does not specifically refer to the three colors.Various clay figures, statues and other pottery excavated from Tang tombs have only one or two colors on them. There are a lot of utensils, but they have more complex and colorful colors.Generally speaking, besides the white ground of the embryo body, lead yellow, green, green tricolor is the most common, on the allocation technique of tricolor, also the most rich artistic charm.In the Trinicai of the Tang Dynasty, there are fewer vessels, but there are more calves, small livestock and poultry, all of which are rich in artistic design, especially in the clay figures of various figures and in the supernatural image of Qitou, it shows the most artistic value.The tricolor ware is showing all kinds of implements used in the real life of the Tang Dynasty, but in these implements, the form of the social life at that time is well presented, from which we can know that the shape, structure and number of the sacrificial vessels and other utensils are determined according to the rank and the size of the grave person's family.For example, the system of Tang ritual ware includes three items above ninety, five items above sixty, and nine items above forty.A man is a foot taller than a horse.Other musical groups, child servants' affiliations, and ceremonial costumes were also determined according to their rank in life.From the height of the Tang Dynasty to the middle and late Tang Dynasties, the style of heavy funerals grew. Sedan up a haul of illuminated articles and walked along streets and thoroughfare, where Chen Tombs were held, singing and dancing music was played, curtains were set up, and passers-by were presented with flowers, human figures and food, almost like sacrifices.Because the Tang Dynasty paid attention to the tricolor ware as burial goods, so, since the construction of Henan Bianluo railway at the end of the Qing Dynasty, in the north suburb of Luoyang, a large number of tricolor ware and figurines have been excavated in the Tang tombs such as Mang Hill.No matter its shape, structure and color, the tri-colored glazed pottery of the Tang Dynasty has a high artistic intention, which attracted the attention of people from Japan, Europe and the United States, and was purchased at a high price. Since then, the tri-colored pottery of the Tang Dynasty has been listed as one of the world's arts.The above quote is from Wang Aijun's art literature Tri-colored Colors of the Tang Dynasty.Tri-colored glazed pottery of the Tang Dynasty reached its peak during the Kaiyuan, Tianbao and Dali dynasties (713-766 AD).Her artistic achievements are decided and she is famous all over the world.Tri-colored glazed pottery of the Tang Dynasty was inspired by a sound and strong Ming dynasty. At the same time, it also specifically and actively reflects the spirit of The Times

舍利塔,是存放佛祖释迦牟尼或后世高僧舍利子的塔,一种是存放舍利子和经书的塔,礼拜舍利宝塔是人们表达对诸佛皈依和感恩的方式。中国最大的舍利塔是五代时期建造的栖霞寺舍利塔,分类有景泰蓝舍利塔、鎏金舍利塔、铜鎏金舍利塔。

十八种功德

(1)是人将生于三善道。

(2)是人将得长寿。

(3)是人将有尊贵的身体。

(4)是人将生而美丽且为众人瞩目。

(5)是人将耳聪目明、感官敏锐。

(6)是人将出生为伟大国王之子。

(7)是人将权集一身且享美誉。

(8)是人将成人中之王。

(9)是人身边侍从集结。

(10)是人将成众人之柱。

(11)是人将名闻十方。

(12)是人将出口成章、辩才无碍。

(13)是人将受人、天供养。

(14)是人将拥有无尽财富。

(15)是人将为宇宙之主。

(16)是人将生而得如佛之相好庄严。

(17)是人之身将如金刚杵之总集。

(18)是人将速得佛果。

The pagoda is a pagoda for storing the Buddhist Buddha Sakyamuni or the Buddhist monks of later generations. One is a pagoda for storing the Buddhist relics and scriptures. The worship pagoda is a way for people to express their conversion and gratitude to the Buddhas.China's largest sarira is the sarira of Qixia Temple built in the Five Dynasties period, classification has cloisonne sarira, gilded sarira, gilded bronze sarira.

Eighteen merits and virtues

(1) It is man who will be born in the Three Good Paths.

(2) It is man who will live long.

(3) It is that men shall have a noble body.

(4) People will be born beautiful and conspicuous.

(5) To be able to see and hear, and to sense.

(6) It is man who will be born the son of a great king.

(7) It is man who gathers power and enjoys fame.

(8) He is the king of men.

(9) It is the gathering of attendants around one.

It is the man who will become the pillar of all.

Fame is known everywhere.

(12) It is the man who will be eloquent and eloquent.

(13) It is man who will be offered by man and heaven.

Man will have unlimited wealth.

It is man who will be the master of the universe.

(16) is that man will be born with the dignity of a Buddha.

(17) It is a collection of human bodies that will be like a diamond pestle.

(18) People will soon get the Buddha fruit.

据传,2500年前释迦牟尼涅槃,弟子们在火化他的遗体时从灰烬中得到了一块头顶骨、两块骨、四颗牙齿、一节中指指骨舍利和八万四千颗珠状真身舍利子。

佛祖的这些遗留物被信众视为圣物,争相供奉。依《长阿含经》卷四〈游行经〉所述,释尊于拘尸城双树间般涅槃后,佛舍利八分,获得佛陀舍利子的国王后来各自建立舍利塔安置供养这些佛陀舍利子。另据《阿育王传》卷一载,佛灭度百年后,阿育王搜集佛遗存的舍利,建造八万四千宝塔供养之。

除上文所载之阿育王集佛舍利盛于八万四千宝箧,建立八万四千塔之外,其他各地亦有供养舍利的情形。阿育王将佛祖留下的舍利收集起来重新分成若干份,送往世界各地,建塔供奉。据说,这些舍利的一部分传到了中国,中国各地便有了佛教舍利塔,而法门寺塔就是其中的一个。

相传,释迦牟尼的舍利被分葬在十处舍利塔中:

According to legend, when the body of Sakyamuni Nirvana was cremated 2,500 years ago, his disciples got a parietal bone, two bones, four teeth, a middle finger and phalanx fragment, and 84,000 beaded body pieces from the ashes.

These relics of the Buddha are regarded as sacred by believers and are eagerly worshipped.According to Bb0, in the fourth volume of the Long Aham Sutra, after being exonerated in the Nirvana between the double trees in the city of the corpse, the Buddha's relics were divided into eight parts. The Kings who obtained the Buddha's relics later built their own pagodas to place and provide for these Buddha's relics.In addition, according to the first volume of Ashoka Biography, after the Buddha's death for a hundred years, Ashoka collected the relics of Buddha and built 84,000 pagodas to support him.

In addition to the above mentioned Ashoka put Buddha's relics into 84,000 tarps and built 84,000 pagodas, there are also cases of offering relics in other places.Ashoka collected the relics left by the Buddha and divided them into several parts and sent them around the world to build pagodas for worship.It is said that some of these relics spread to China, and there were Buddhist stupas all over China, and the pagoda of Famen Temple is one of them.[1]

According to legend, Sakyamuni's relics are buried in ten stupas: